class pymc_experimental.statespace.models.structural.FrequencySeasonality(season_length, n=None, name=None, innovations=True)[source]#

Seasonal component, modeled in the frequency domain

  • season_length (float) – The number of periods in a single seasonal cycle, e.g. 12 for monthly data with annual seasonal pattern, 7 for daily data with weekly seasonal pattern, etc. Non-integer seasonal_length is also permitted, for example 365.2422 days in a (solar) year.

  • n (int) – Number of fourier features to include in the seasonal component. Default is season_length // 2, which is the maximum possible. A smaller number can be used for a more wave-like seasonal pattern.

  • name (str, default None) – A name for this seasonal component. Used to label dimensions and coordinates. Useful when multiple seasonal components are included in the same model. Default is f"Seasonal[s={season_length}, n={n}]"

  • innovations (bool, default True) – Whether to include stochastic innovations in the strength of the seasonal effect


A seasonal effect is any pattern that repeats every fixed interval. Although there are many possible ways to model seasonal effects, the implementation used here is the one described by [1] as the “canonical” frequency domain representation. The seasonal component can be expressed:

\[\begin{split}\begin{align} \gamma_t &= \sum_{j=1}^{2n} \gamma_{j,t} \\ \gamma_{j, t+1} &= \gamma_{j,t} \cos \lambda_j + \gamma_{j,t}^\star \sin \lambda_j + \omega_{j, t} \\ \gamma_{j, t}^\star &= -\gamma_{j,t} \sin \lambda_j + \gamma_{j,t}^\star \cos \lambda_j + \omega_{j,t}^\star \lambda_j &= \frac{2\pi j}{s} \end{align}\end{split}\]

Where \(s\) is the seasonal_length.

Unlike a TimeSeasonality component, a FrequencySeasonality component does not require integer season length. In addition, for long seasonal periods, it is possible to obtain a more compact state space representation by choosing n << s // 2. Using TimeSeasonality, an annual seasonal pattern in daily data requires 364 states, whereas FrequencySeasonality always requires 2 * n states, regardless of the seasonal_length. The price of this compactness is less representational power. At n = 1, the seasonal pattern will be a pure sine wave. At n = s // 2, any arbitrary pattern can be represented.

One cost of the added flexibility of FrequencySeasonality is reduced interpretability. States of this model are coefficients \(\gamma_1, \gamma^\star_1, \gamma_2, \gamma_2^\star ..., \gamma_n, \gamma^\star_n\) associated with different frequencies in the fourier representation of the seasonal pattern. As a result, it is not possible to isolate and identify a “Monday” effect, for instance.

__init__(season_length, n=None, name=None, innovations=True)[source]#


__init__(season_length[, n, name, innovations])

build([name, filter_type, verbose])

Build a StructuralTimeSeries statespace model from the current component(s)

make_and_register_data(name, shape[, dtype])

Helper function to create a pytensor symbolic variable and register it in the _name_to_data dictionary

make_and_register_variable(name, shape[, dtype])

Helper function to create a pytensor symbolic variable and register it in the _name_to_variable dictionary